WOODWORK TO I.E.D

WAEC SYLLABUS ON WOODWORK TO I.E.D

PREAMBLE

The course in Woodwork at the Senior High School level is to enable candidates gain knowledgein the art and craft of woodworking and provide them with basic and necessary skills fortechnological growth. At this level, the knowledge to be acquired will act as an avenue forfurther growth during and after school.
It is intended to give students of the subject opportunity to display detailed knowledge of, andskills in
(1) technical drawing and designing;
(2) practical work;
(3) methods and principles of construction;
(4) quality control, estimation and costing.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Candidates are expected to demonstrate:
(1) creative ability, mental and practical skills in the use of hand and machine tools forconstruction of basic items using wood and related materials;
(2) good basic knowledge of design and reading of working drawings;
(3) ability to plan and follow a sequence of work operations which are necessary to lead tosuccessful completion of projects;
(4) functional skills capable of providing a means of livelihood in woodworking;
(5) awareness of problems relating to wood and the wood industry;

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

(1) Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

(a) terminologies used in woodwork;
(b) materials used in woodwork;
(c) care and maintenance of hand tools and machines;
(d) safety precautions at the workshop;
(e) principles of designing and drawing;
(f) methods and principles of construction.

(2) Candidates should be able to demonstrate the ability to

(a) follow a given design brief to produce working drawings;
(b) interpret working drawings;
(c) use tools, equipment and materials to carry out practical operations in sequentialorder;
(d) prepare surfaces and apply appropriate finishes.

(3) Candidates should be able to:

(a) compare features of different items and make comments or judgment, contrast,justify, support or criticize a job;
(b) write appraisal report on artefacts.

STRUCTURE AND SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 willcomposite paper to be taken at a sitting.

PAPER 1:

will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must beanswered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

will consist of theory and design paper of two sections, Sections A and B to betaken within 2hours 20 minutes.

Section A:

will be short structured questions in three parts. Parts I, II and III asfollows:
● Part I will be for candidates in Ghana only.
● Part II will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.
● Part III will be for all candidates. It will comprise of two questions out of whichall candidates will be required to answer one.

Section B:

shall comprise design and drawing questions, all of which must beanswered within 1 hour 40 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 3:

will be a practical test lasting 3 hours. Candidates will be required to make a testpiece for which the appropriate drawings will be supplied. It will carry 100 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

A. PRACTICAL

1. The practical activities would require the use ofcommon hand tools:

1. common hand tools;
2. portable power tools and basic woodworking machines;
3. different joints and shapes;
4. nails, screws and other fasteners and fittings;
5. solid wood, manufactured boards and non-wood materials.

2. Candidates will be required to work from dimensioned sketches, written descriptions or workingdrawings. They are expected to be able to construct the following joints:

(a) Widening joints – e.g. plain/simple butt, dowelled, tongued and grooved, rebated butt.
(b) Angle joints
(i) box-like construction, e.g. common and lapped dovetail, pin joints.
(ii) Shelf-like construction, e.g. housing joints, pinned joints, dowelled,plain mitre.
(c) Framing joints – e.g. mortise and tenon, bridle and lapped joints, mitre, dowelled.
Candidates will also be expected to be able to perform the following operations:
(i) cutting – e.g. ripping, cross-cutting;
(ii) planing – e.g. surfacing, thicknessing;
(iii) shaping – e.g. chamfering, rounding and tapering;
(iv) assembling and finishing – e.g. testing for squareness, parallelism, use ofdiagonals, trial assembly, cramping methods, preparation of surfaces and application offinishes.

B. THEORY

S/NoTOPICSCONTENTSNOTES
1.

General Workshop Safety

(a) Personal safetyprecautions.
(b) General Workshop safetyregulations.
(c) Safety devices andappliances.
(d) Hand tool safety.
(e) Machine safety:
(i) General machine shopsafety;
(ii) Safety precautions inthe use of portablepower tools andmachines;
(iii) Safety in machinesoperations;
(iv) Prevention ofmechanical faults.
(f) First aid.
Types and uses


Safety precautions in carrying,storing, and handling handtools.


Materials and administration.
2.

Hand tools

(a) Types
(b) Classification:geometrical, holding andsupporting, impelling andpercussion, cutting,boring, abrading andscraping tools.
To include identification,description and sketching.
3.

Special Purpose Hand tools.

Types and uses:
● Planes: spokeshavesrebate Plane, Ploughplane, block plane,shoulder plane etc.
● Saws: bow saw, pad/keyhole saw, copingsaw, fret saw.
● Boring bit: expansionbit, forstner bit,countersink bit, auger bit, etc.
● Shapers: scrapers,rasps, surforms, etc.
To include identification,description and sketching.
4.

Portable Power tools.

(a) Types: Power drill, jigsaw, spray gun, screwdriver, sanders, router.
power circular saw, etc.(b) Uses.
To include identification,description, care and safe use.
5.

Woodworking machines.

(a) Types: Circular saw,crosscut saw,thicknesser, surfaceplaner, mortiser, lathe,grinding wheel, drillingmachine, etc.
(b) Uses.
(c) Safety Precautions.
To include identification,description, care and safe use.


To include the use of guards,fences, push sticks, pushblocks, gauges etc.
6.

Maintenance

(a) Types: corrective,routine, predictive andpreventive.
(b) Reasons for maintenance.
(c) Maintenance of handtools.
(d) Maintenance ofmachines.
To include maintenanceactivities, materials and tools.

To include oiling, sharpening,repairing, storing etc.

To include cleaning, oiling,servicing, replacing parts etc.
7.

West African Timbers incommon use.

(a) Timber growth andstructure.
(b) Common West AfricanTimbers e.g. Iroko(Odum), abura,mahogany, obeche(Wawa), African walnut,afara, ebony, danta,emery, shedua,mansonia, cedar,afromosia (kokrodua),avodire, kusia.
(c) Characteristics.
(d) Uses
Structure to includeclassification, e.g.soft/hardwoods. Parts andtheir functions


Surface, working andmechanical qualities,similarities and differences.Specific uses.
8.

Timber Conversion

(a) Explanation.
(b) Conversion methods:
(i) plain/through andthrough/live sawing;
(ii)Tangential/back/flat/rake sawing
(iii)Quarter/radial/riftsawing;
(c) Common market sizes:
log, plank, scantling,board, batten, strip/lath,squares.
Characteristics, advantagesand disadvantages of eachmethod.


Including, identificationdescription and uses.
9.

Timber seasoning

(a) Explanation.
(b) Reasons for seasoning
(c) Methods of seasoning:
Natural/open air,artificial/kiln, water andchemical seasoning.
(d) Determination ofmoisture content:
(i) moisture metermethod;
(ii) oven dry method.
Advantages and disadvantagesof each method.

Advantages and disadvantagesof each method.

Calculation of percentagemoisture content.
10.

Timber defects

(a) Explanation of timberdefect.
(b) Types of defects
(i) natural growth defects;
(ii) felling defects;
(iii) conversion defects;
(iv) seasoning defects;
(v) defects caused byOrganisms.
Causes, prevention, remedies,description and sketching.
11.

Timber preservation

(a) Reasons for preservingtimber.
(b) Common timberpreservatives
(c) Properties of a goodtimber preservative
(d) Methods of applyingtimber preservatives:brushing, dipping,spraying etc.
To include specific uses.
Advantages and disadvantagesof each method.

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12.

Manufactured boards

(i) types;
(ii) structure;
(iii) characteristics
(iv) uses.
To include description anduses.
Advantages and disadvantagesof each type.
13.

Timber Preparation

(a) Selection of tools andmachines
(b) Operational sequence:
(i) hand preparation;
(ii) machine preparation.
To include practicalpreparation of stock.
14.

Woodwork joints

Classification:
(i) widening joints: simplebutt, dowel, tongued andgrooved, loose tongue,rebated butt etc.
(ii) angle joints: mortise andtenon, dowelled butt,dovetails, housing, halving etc.
(iii) framing joints: mortiseand tenon, bridle, plainmitre, dowelled butt,halving etc.
To include identification,description, sketching,construction, specific use etc.
15.

Wood finishes and finishing.

Wood finishes:
(i) types: fillers, stains,paints, varnishes,lacquers, polishes etc.
(ii) application of finishes:
- surface preparation;
- tools;
- methods: brushing,
spraying, dipping, etc.
To include:
(i) properties, characteristicsand uses of each.To include:
(i) stages and tools for eachmethod.
(ii) Safety precautions.
16.

Wood abrasives

(a) Meaning
(b) Grades: coarse, mediumand fine.
(c) Selection and uses.
Identification, selection anduses.
To include specific applicationof each grade.
17.

Wood adhesives

Types:
(a) protein: animal, casein
(b) synthetic resins: urea,phenol and melamineformaldehydes, epoxylresins, polyvinyl acetate(PVA).
(c) contact/rubber based
To include characteristics,uses, preparation andapplication and safetyprecaution during application.
18.

Wood fittings and fasteners

(a) Fittings: e.g. hinges,locks, handles, bolts,catches, etc.
(b) Fasteners: Nails, screws,bolts and nuts, corrugatedfasteners etc.
To include identification,description, sketching, uses,application, fixing etc.
To include identification,description, sketching, uses,application, fixing etc.
19.

Non-wood materials

Types: Glass, plastics, rubber,ceramics, metal,leather, etc. To include identification,description, characteristics,uses and other types of each.
20.

Veneers and Veneering

(a) Veneers: Types
Production.
(b) Veneering:
(i) Methods: hammer,press.
(ii) Tools: veneerhammer,pressing iron,cramps, caul,etc.
To include identification, description and uses.To include the processes foreach method.

To include identification,description, sketching anduses.
21.

Wood shaping and bending.

(a) Shaping: Rounding,moulding, bevelling,chamfering, tapering,carving, etc.
(b) Bending: Solid,laminated
To include identification,description, sketching,processes, techniques, toolsand machines, properties ofwood suitable for each.
22.

Design and Drawing

(a) Concept of design;
(b) Design fundamentals andprocesses;
(c) Free hand sketching;
(e) Working drawings;
(f) Cutting list and bill ofmaterials;
(g) Basic draftsmanshipskills.
Working drawings in the Firstand Third Angle orthographicprojections.
Indication ofcutting correct sectionalrepresentation of the materialsare assential.
23.

Project Design andConstruction.

(a) Identification andanalysis of given designproblems.
(b) Designing to solve theproblems.
(c) Estimating the cost of thedesign.
(d) Constructing to meet thedesign specification.
Design problems should arisefrom customer needs, marketsurvey, situation analysis, etc.
To include evaluating theproduct to meet designpurpose and specification.
24.

Upholstery

(a) Upholstery work.
(b) Hand tools and machines:needles, pair of scissors,hammer, webbingstretcher, sewingmachine, buttoningmachine.
(c) Materials e.g. for framing,stuffing/padding,covering, decorating.
(d) Processes and techniques:framing, padding,covering, finishing,decoration, etc.
To include description, typesand parts.

Identification, description,sketching, care and uses.

To be applied in constructingupholstery project.
25.

Wood turning

(a) The wood lathe: Parts andaccessories.
(b) Turning tools: chisels,gouges, calipers, etc.
(c) Turning operations: faceplate turning, turningbetween centres andboring.
(d) Suitable wood for turning:abura, ebony, mahogany,etc.
(e) Projects: vase, bowl,candle holder, etc.
Identification, description,sketching, care, uses and safeuse.
To include identification andspecific use.
To include description andactual turning.
26.

Wood carving and sculpture

(a) Carving: incise and relief.
(b) Sculpture: Production ofsimple ornaments.
(c) Tools e.g. chisels,gouges, knives, files, etc.
To include description,identification, application andprocesses.
To include identification,sketching and uses.
27.

Surface Decoration

Types: inlaying, veneering,marquetry, lamination,laminated plastics,mouldings, etc. Identification, description,processes, techniques andapplication.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

28.

Mass Production

(a) Concept and principles.
(b) Processes: Marketsurvey, design,production, qualityassurance,sales/marketing,management,procurement, costestimation, tooling up forproduction.
To include mass productionterms, e.g. templates, fixtures,trial run, departments, section,prototype, quality control, etc.Basic knowledge of theconcepts required.

FOR CANDIDATES IN NIGERIA ONLY

29.

Entrepreneurship inWoodworking.

(a) Types of businessorganisation e.g. soleproprietorship,partnership, cooperativesetc.
(b) Business opportunities inWoodworking: e.g.merchandizing, spraypainting, upholsterywork, wood turning.
(c) Business plans: formatand content.
(d) Sources of fund e.g.gifts,personal savings, loans,inheritance, cooperativesetc.
To include characteristicadvantages and disadvantages.


To include sample plans.


To include benefits and therisks.

RECOMMENDED TOOLS AND MACHINES

A. HAND TOOLS

1. Try square
2. Marking gauge
3. Mortise gauge
4. Mitre square
5. Sliding bevel
6. Pair of compasses
7. Pair of dividers
8. Pair of callipers
9. G-Cramps
10. Sash Cramps
11. F-Cramps
12. Work Bench
13. Rip saw
14. Crosscut saw
15. Panel saw
16. Dovetail saw
17. Tenon saw
18. Coping saw
19. Fret saw

20. Nest of saws
21. Jack plane
22. Smooth plane
23. Block plane
24. Try plane
25. Beveled edge chisels
26. Firmer chisels
27. Mortise chisels
28. Pairing chisels
29. Claw Hammer
30. Ball pen hammer
31. Tack hammer
32. Braces (ordinary and ratchet)
33. Brace bits
34. Hand drill(s)
35. Drill bit(s)
36. Screw driver sets
37. Mallets
38. Rasps
39. Files
40. Surforms
41. Plough planes
42. Rebate planes
43. Bullnose Rebate plane
44. Pair of scissors
45. Upholstery hammer
46. Webbing stretcher
47. Needles (straight, curved)
48. Staplers

B. WOODWORKING MACHINES

1. Cross-cut saw
2. Circular saw bench
3. Dimension saw
4. Band saw

C. PORTABLE POWER TOOLS

1. Plane
2. Router
3. Jig saw
4. Circular saw
5. Power drill
6. Sanders (orbital, belt, disc)

SUGGESTED READING LIST

1. Woodwork in Theory and Practice – John A. Walton, Australian PublishingCompany.
2. Woodwork Design and Practice – David M. Shaw – Hodder and Stoughton
3. Woodwork by G. N Green
4. Basic Principles of Woodwork Design and Drawing – Emmanuel A. NnenjiAranke woods
5. Practical Upholstery – C. Howes F.A. M.UEvans Brothers Limited, London.
6. General Certificate Woodwork by H. E. King
7. Fundamentals of Woodworking by Nurudeen et all
8. Woodwork by G. W. Brazier and H. A. Harris

9. Advance Woodworking and Furniture Making by J. Fierre and G. Hutchings
10. Woodwork for Senior Secondary School by CESAC
11. Woodwork for Senior Secondary School by J. N. K. Sackey, G. Manu and R. Y. Baafi
12. Woodwork Made Simple by Tom Pettit
13. Woodwork Technology by John Strefford Guy McMurdo
14. Woodwork by E. J. Wunter
15. Woodwork Technology by J. K. N. Sackey
16. Woodworker’s Pocket Book by Charles H. Hayford
17. Collins complete woodworker’s Manual by Jackson Albert and Day David

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