VISUAL ART

WAEC SYLLABUS ON VISUAL ART

PREAMBLE

The syllabus is intended to provide candidates with the opportunity to demonstrate the extent oftheir aesthetic awareness, emotional and visual development through self-participatory creativeactivities.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

To assess these qualities efficiently, candidates should be able to respond to questions whichseek to evaluate their:
(a) development of deep sense of observation, analytical and expressive skills through avariety of self-participatory art activities.
(b) knowledge and skills in the use and maintenance of art tools, equipment and materials.
(c) level of appreciation of values and qualities of different works of art, includingindigenous material culture.
(d) understanding and creative application of design elements and principles.
(e) knowledge of the history and branches of Art.
(f) knowledge and appreciation of the relationship between African Art and Western Art.
(g) understanding of the meaning, significance and role of art in socio-economicdevelopment and self-reliance.
(h) understanding and application of indigenous and modern technology in art.
(i) creative skills in the improvisation of local materials and resources.
(j) understanding of the relevance of art in other subjects areas.
(k) level of exposure to careers in art.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

The examination consists of three papers: Papers 1, 2, and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1and 2 will be combined in a composite paper and will be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

This paper will contain forty multiple choice objective questions to be taken in 50minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

This paper will consist of three sections: Sections A, B and C covering thefollowing areas of the syllabus:
Section A: General knowledge in art;
Section B: Art of West Africa;
Section C: Pre-historic art, Ancient Egyptian art and Western Art.
The paper will contain a total of eight essay questions. Candidates will berequired to answer four questions choosing one question from Section A, twofrom Section B and one question in Section C. The paper will last 2 hours andcarry 60 marks,
Papers 1 and 2 will focus on general knowledge in art, i.e. elements and principlesof art; branches, processes, history and appreciation of art; as well as creativedesign processes. They will also involve tests on the use and care of art tools andmaterials.
The test in art history will cover both the traditional and contemporary Art ofWest African countries. It will also cover pre-historic art, ancient Egyptian art andEuropean (Western art). The section on art history will cover specific periods andregions and it is important that candidates should have adequate understanding ofthe beliefs and attitudes that influenced artists in their work.

PAPER 3:

The paper shall also have three sections: Sections A, B and C. Candidates for theMay/ June diet of the examination shall be required to answer questions inSection A and those in either Section B or C. Those for the November/Decemberdiet shall answer questions in Sections A and B only. Details on the questions inthe sections are as follow


Section A - Drawing

This section will contain three questions, one each on drawing from objects,nature or life, from which candidates shall attempt one question only in 3 hoursfor 100 marks. The instruction(s) for the section will be given to artteachers/supervisors two weeks before the date of the test. This is to enable the artthem obtain the required materials for the test before the day of writing the paper.

Section B - Creative Design (2 - Dimensional)

This section will contain a total of six questions; two each on graphic design,textiles design and picture-making. Candidates will be required to answer onequestion only in 3 hours for 100 marks. The question paper will be given tocandidates at least 2 weeks prior to the day for executing the work, but the artwork must be done on the day for the test under appropriate WAEC supervision.

Section C - Creative Design (3 - Dimensional)

This section will contain four questions; one each on sculpture, productdesign/modeling, ceramics and crafts. Candidates will be required to answer onequestion only within six months for 100 marks

DETAILED SYLLABUS

PAPERS 1 AND 2
General Knowledge in Art

(a) Nature and branches of Art and careers in art;
(b) Visual awareness, understanding and appreciation of Art elements, their forms,characteristics and functions e.g. line, colour, space, shape, form, texture, etc.;
(c) Principles of Art – creative application of art and design principles e.g. balance, rhythm,proportion, harmony, emphasis, variety, etc.
(d) Perspective – meaning and type e.g. aerial, linear (angular/parallel) and foreshortening.(e) The knowledge of production, use and care of art/craft tools and materials e.g. brush,pencil, colour, palette, easels, etc;
(f) Art and craft terms e.g. tie and dye, biscuit ware, silhouette, relief, chiaroscuro, sfumato,aperture, etc;
(g) The inter-relationships of the arts e.g. music, visual art, dance, drama and literary arts.

Art of West Africa

Knowledge of traditional Art of West Africa, the basic concepts (e.g. animism, fetishism andmythology): art forms, geographical location, characteristics, underlying beliefs and the sacredand secular functions of art. A general knowledge of contemporary artists and art educator, theirworks, style, media, materials and contribution to the development of art.

Ancient Traditional Art

Cameroon - Bamileke
Dahomey (Now Benin Republic) - Fon
Gambia - Wollof, Mandinka, Jola
Ghana (Formerly Gold Coast) - Ashanti, Fante, Ewe, Frafra
Guinea - Kissi
Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) - Senufo, Baule
Liberia - Dan and Ngere
Mali - Dogon, Bambara
Sierra Leone - Mende, Sherbro
Upper Volta (Now Burkina Faso) - Mossi, Bobo, Kurumba
Nigeria - Benin, Ife, Nok, Igbo-Ukwu, Esie, Owo, etc.

Modern Traditional Art

Oshogbo art, Ashanti and Ewe Kente, Modern Benin art, Winneba pottery, Abuja pottery, Ntosoadinkra, Bida brass works, calabash carving, Enyiresi basketry, Mbari mud sculpture, weaving,leatherwork, wall decoration, indigenous Decorative Motifs.

Contemporary

(a) Art institutions (art schools, art galleries, arts centres, museums). Various departmentsresponsible for art and culture, Art organizations, e.g INSEA (International Society forEducation through Art), NSIAD (Nigeria Society of Industrial Artists and Designers),Ghana Artists Association, Ghana Craftsmen Association, Ghana Arts Council, GAT(Gambia Art Teachers Association), NAAC (National Association of Artists andCraftsmen) SNA (Society of Nigerian Artists), NSEA (Nigerian Society of Educationthrough Art), Ona Art Movement of Artists, Ulli Art Movement, The Eye Society.
Cultural festivals (their artistic significance e.g. costumes, symbols, objects, masks, bodydecorations, wall decorations, etc).
(b) Outstanding contemporary West African Artists: their training, style, achievements andcontributions to the development of art.

Pre-historic, Ancient Egyptian and Western Art

(a) Pre-historic (Earlyman’s Art 20,000 – 2000BC)(Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic stone Ages)beliefs, materials, characteristics and functions;
(b) Ancient Egyptian art 11,000 – 7,000 BC (Old, Middle and New Kingdoms) beliefs, stylesand functions;
(c) Greek Art - Periods and charctreristics;
(d) Medieval Art – Features, media and characteristics.

19th Century Art

(a) Impressionism - Artists - Paul Cezanne, Claude Monet, Edouard Manet, Georges Seurat.
(b) Post Impressionism (late 19 century)- Artists - Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin etc.

Renaissance Art

Early, Low and High Renaissance Art – Artists: Giotto, Donatello, Masaccio, etc.

Medieval Art:

Features (characteristics).

Greek Art:

Periods (Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic), characteristics and artists.

20th Century Art

Cubism: Influence of African Art and Artists - Pablo Picasso, George Braque.

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Paper 3

Part A - Drawing

This paper will seek to test candidates’ ability to observe, analyse and accurately depict naturaland man-made objects. It will also test their ability to represent the structure and forms of thehuman figure.
The paper has three alternatives:
(a) Drawing from Objects.
(b) Drawing from Nature.
(c) Drawing from Life.
Works can be rendered in pencil, pastel, charcoal, pen and ink or poster/water colour.Candidates should attempt one alternative only. All alternatives carry equal marks.

(a) Drawing from Objects

The aim of this alternative is to test candidates’ ability to observe and interpret a group ofarranged objects as a total composition. It will require a drawing of a group of man-madeobjects. The work may be carried out in relation to the surroundings or the part of theroom in which the objects are placed. The drawing may include objects such as old radiosets, parts of cars, bicycles, machines, bottles, etc.

(b) Drawing from Nature

The purpose of this alternative is to get candidates to make a study of natural objects tobring out the beauty of their forms and/or the nature of their growth. This may requirethe study of a branch which may include flowers, foliage, fruits and vegetables. It mayalso be the study of rocks, bones, insects and birds, shells and other forms including fish,crustacean, skeleton etc.

(c) Drawing from Life

The aim of this alternative is to test candidates’ ability to observe and depict accurately,the structure and form of a living person. The model (male or female) is to be posed inan attitude which will be described. The figure must be drawn as may be instructed.

Part B - Creative Design (2 – Dimensional Art)

This Part contains six questions, two each on graphic design, textile design and picture makingand candidates are to attempt one question only. It seeks to test candidates’ ability to visualizeideas and situations, sense of critical observation, originality and imagination in communicatingpersonal vision in 2-Dimensional art forms.

Graphic Design

Questions in graphic design will test candidates’ sense of design, organizational ability andtechnical proficiency in the execution of the under-listed areas:(i) Lettering and Poster Design – This includes:the design and layout of a brief notice requiring formal lettering, which may be inRoman, Gothic or any other formalized characters;creation of pictorial posters with suitable lettering;lettering and layout appropriate for purposes such as greeting cards, formal invitationsand book jackets, logo types, emblems, symbols, labels, wall hangings etc.
(ii) Book Illustration – This includes story and text illustrations
in books, magazines andnewspapers.(iii) Printmaking – This includes linocut, woodcut, yam print, stenciling, screen printing andothers.
(iv) Package Design – e.g. wrappers, cereal packages and record (CD) jackets etc;
(v) Computer Graphics – Designing any of (i – iv) with the use of computer software e.g.CorelDraw, Adobe Photoshop etc.

Textile Design

Designing a piece of material such as cotton, or silk, dyed in a pattern as in batik, tie and dye orprinted as in block or screen printing. The piece should be at least two metres in length andunsewn. This section will also involve the following:
(i) Appliqué – shaped fabric pieces sewn on a foundation fabric to form a Design or pattern.
(ii) Tapestry – a piece of fabric with a woven pattern or picture used as wall hanging,upholstery, etc.

Picture-Making

Questions on picture-making are meant to test candidates’ creative sense, ability and technicalproficiency in the execution of the under-listed areas:
(i) Painting – Creating illustrative composition of ideas (themes) from everyday life orimagination, using suitable medium. This shall include Mural.
(ii) Photography – the art of producing pictures with camera. The purpose of this aspect isfor candidates to be able to demonstrate basic knowledge and creative skill in shootingand printing of pictures from a variety of subjects such as:
Portraits - human compositions
Landscape - rocks, hills, anthills, buildings, street scenes, etc.
Seascape - beach scenes, streams, waterfall, dams etc.
Nature - plants, leaves, flower foliage, twigs, fruits, etc.
Pets - cats, dogs, birds etc.
Experimental photography with simple forms of photo tricks e.g. photo grams and imagedistortion in printing etc. is encouraged.
(iii) Mosaic – making picture with small pieces of regular shaped coloured materials e.g.glass, paper or tile stuck onto a surface.
(iv) Collage – making pictures by synthesizing a variety of irregular shaped materials likecloth, pieces of paper and other objects onto a surface.

Part C - Creative Design (3 - Dimensional)

This part is aimed at evaluating candidates’ sense of originality and imagination incommunicating personal ideas and vision in 3-Dimensaional art forms. Candidates may use clay,papier-mâché, wood/plywood, cement, fiber-glass, Plaster-of-Paris, paper (includingembossed/texturized card-board, chip-board and straw-board) etc.

Sculpture

This may be rendered in clay, metal, wood, papier-mâché, cement, etc. All works rendered inclay must be fired.

Product Design/Modeling

Designing and producing models of industrial products, such as automobiles, phones, bottles,cosmetics, etc.

Ceramics

Ceramic wares such as jugs, flower vase, bowl, etc which a candidate has either moulded, handbuiltor thrown on the wheel or any other object such as a toy animal or figure. Clay works mustbe fired.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

Crafts

This shall include:
(i) Basketry: the making of mats, chair, hat, stool, bag, macramé or other useful objectsdesigned and woven or plaited in cane, raffia, etc.
(ii) Jewellery: the design and construction of ornaments with metals, beads, plastic, shells,seeds, etc.
(iii) Calabash Decoration: Designing and decorating calabash using various method.

General Note on Paper 3C

The project work in Paper 3C (3-Dimensional design) should be executed within 6 months ofthe examination year. Notes, diagrams and working drawings must be submitted along with thefinished projects. These constitute 10% of the total marks obtainable.

SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL

S/NoAUTHORTITLEPUBLISHER
1Amenuke, S.K., B. K. Dogbe et alGeneral Knowledge in Art for Senior Secondary SchoolsMinistry of Education, Accra, Ghana
2E. H. GombrichThe Story of ArtPhaidon Press Limited
3Hellen GardnerArt Through the AgersHarcourt, Brace & World, N.Y. 1980
4Kofi AntubamGhana’s Heritage of Culture
5Bernard S. MayersArt & CivilizationMcGraw Hill, New York
6HarlowArt History inAfricaLongman Group Limited
7Robert ClementThe Art Teacher’s HandbookCentury Hotchinson Limited, London
8Harry StembergCompositionGrosset & Dunlop New York
9Maurice De SamsmarezBasic Design: The Dynamics of Visual FormStudio Vista Limited, London
10Harold OsborneArt of AppreciationOxford University, London
11Henry PluckroseThe Book of CraftsEvans Brothers Limited, London
12Werner GillonA Short history of African ArtPengium Books Limited, Harmondsworth, U.K.
13WhitfieldBeginning Pen lettering (Book 3)Gina and Company Ltd, London.
14Ayisi, Eric, O.An Introduction to the Study of African CultureHeinemann, 1972
15Beier, UlliArt in NigeriaLondon, Cambridge University Press, 1960
16Olaosebikan, W.A.Cultural & Creative Arts: A Source Book for TeachersIbadan: Evans
17Underwood, LeonBronzes of West AfricaTransatlantic Art 1968
18Wangboje, S. J.A Textbook on Art for Senior Secondary SchoolEvans Brother (Nig.) Ltd, 1982
19Frank WillettIfe and the History of West African SculptureThames and Hudson, 1967
20Pat OyelolaNigerian CraftsMacmillian 1981
21George TalabiArt Teaching in African SchoolsHeinemann Educational Books, Ibadan
22Frank WillettAfrican ArtThames and Hudson
23Ibrahim BanjokoCultural and Creative Arts
24Emu OgumorCertificate Art for Junior and Senior Secondary SchoolsUniversity Press 2007
25Uzoagba, I. N.Understanding Art in General EducationAfrican First Publishers Ltd, 2008
26Filani KunlePatterns of Culture in Contemporary Yoruba ArtSymphony Books 2005.

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