SCULPTURE

WAEC SYLLABUS ON SCULPTURE

PREAMBLE:

Sculpture has been identified as one of the vocational subjects at the Senior High School Levelbecause of its importance in the sustenance and development of the culture and arts of a society.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the syllabus are to test for the candidate’s:
(i) knowledge in the history and development of sculpture,
(ii) ability to explore, identify, select, construct, prepare, use, care for materials and tools,
(iii) knowledge and experience in healthy studio practices.
(iv) creative and manipulatory skills in designing and production of various forms ofsculptureby employing the traditions and cultures of the society to arrive at original creations,
(v) skills in the finishing and packaging of sculptures,
(vi) capability to appreciate and critique works of sculpture,
(vii) ability to plan and establish a small-scale industry.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of forty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must beanswered within 50 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to answerfour questions within 2 hours for 60 marks.

PAPER 3:

Will be two practical projects out of which candidates will execute one withinfive days, working for six hours each of the days. The paper will carry80 marks.

The questions will be sent to the candidates two weeks before the executionperiod for candidates to study. Designing of sketches and preparatory notesshould also be done within the two weeks prior to the execution of the project.These will carry 20 marks. The total mark for the paper is therefore 100.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

Sculpture, as applied in this syllabus, includes the general knowledge of the history anddevelopment of the vocation, selection and use of tools and materials, health hazards and safetyprecautions, production of works, their finishing and packaging techniques and marketingstrategies of the products.

Candidates will be expected to respond adequately to questions drawn from all aspects ofsculpture in their objective, essay and practical forms. Questions will be drawn from thefollowing areas:

(i) Sculpture as a Vocation:

Definition of sculpture, history and rationale for studying sculpture, career opportunies,the sculpture industry, methods of making sculpture i.e. carving, modelling, casting,construction and assemblage, etc.

(ii) Exploration of materials, tools and equipment:

(a) Carving – identification and uses of tools, e.g gouges, mallets, chisels, saws,adze, etc. Methods of using various tools; care of tools to prevent rust, damageand promote longevity, (clean and oil metal parts). Keep tools in tool box.Equipment: table, bench vices, clamps, bench-screws, power tools, sprayers,grinders, drills, chain saw, etc. Care and maintenance: clean and oil regularly.

(b) Modelling – identification and uses of modelling tools, eg. spatula, calipers,frog(cutting wire), throne. Methods of modelling: pinching, slabbing, coiling andhollowing. Care and maintenance: care to prevent damage, clean, wash and dry.Equipment: modelling stand, modelling table, turn table.

(a) Casting - identification and uses of casting tools,
e.g.spatula, kidney, lost wax,sand casting, cold casting, plaster, cement, wax and slip casting, paper,etc.Equipment for casting: crucibles, tongs, safety equipment, gloves, goggles,masks, etc.
(d) Construction and assemblage – identification and uses of tools, eg. hacksaw,wires, hammers, saw, chisels, pincers, rasps files etc.; methods ofconstruction and assemblage, eg. riveting, welding, tying, nailing, soldering,sewing, gluing etc.Equipment: soldering machine, arc-welding machine, goggles, etc.

(e) Safety measures and precaution –
Carving: wearing protective covering i.e.glasses,respiratory aid, earplugs, boots, etc,
carve away from the body.
Modelling: nose guard for working with dry clay, POP, cement, etc,
boots,overall clothing. Casting: protective clothing for the body and face, boots, glass,gloves. Construction and Assemblage:
protection from naked fire and electricwires, working on dry areas, wearing boots, avoid spillage, inhaling gases anddusty materials.

(f) Sources of tools and equipment – Tools: blacksmith shop,carpentry, hardware shops (eg. Sambraco Enterprise, (Accra).

(iii) Material - carving:

ivory from elephants, whitehog etc, stone, wood from the forest,sawmills, timber market, from the farms; modelling –
clay from river banks, marshyareas, valleys, road construction sites, dug wells, environment and hardware shops,others: environment and shops e.g. POP, cement and paper.
Maintenance –
keep wet clay in bins or polythene, cement and POP in dry places, waxmust be stored in a cool place, iron rods must be kept from moist condition, wood mustbe kept under shed or indoors.

(iv) Preliminary Design -

Meaning and importance of preliminary design: serves as a guide orgives an idea of the end product and also prevents waste of material and saves time. Ideadevelopment: sketching and drawing, planning and organization of ideas (manual andcomputer aided design), preparation of models for reference.

(v) Method of Production -

Production Process -
Direct/IndirectMethod of carving (relief and in the round), engraving, whittling,chipping chiseling,blocking, blasting, etc. Modelling:
pinching, coiling, hollowing, scooping, slabbing.
Casting: moulding, lost wax casting, cold casting, waste mould, casting piece mould,casting, sand casting, repouse layering. Construction and Assemblage:
welding,soldering, riveting hammering, joining, pressing, sewing, knotting, repouse filigree(Quilling), etc.

(vi) Lettering

Types of lettering: e.g. block, gothic, freestyle, italics, Roman, etc Method of execution:
manual and computer –
stenciling, carving, embossing, moulding, reflexive, scorching,etching casting, forging, modelling casting. Application of lettering/uses -
plaques,memorials, tombstone, ornamental inscription, epitaphs, medals, shield, label. Materialsfor lettering –
paper, leather, stone, wood, POP, rubber plastic clay, etc. Tools forlettering –
chisels, lino cutters, gouges, spatula, knives, hammer, mallets, scooping tool,computer software, pencils, lettering pens, soldering rod, etc.

(vii) Decoration and Finishing

Types of Decoration -
eg. incision, engraving, scorching, painting, varnishing,burnishing, embossing, stamping, texturing, smoking, sand blasting, inlaying etc.
Methods of decoration, e.g. cutting into surface with tools, pressing into surface,stamping on surface etc.
Types of Finishing –
e.g. polishing, painting,, varnishing, waxing, smoothing, sanding,texturing, etc.
Importance of Decoration and Finishing –
eg. adds value, preservation,protection, durability, easy to identify, socio-economic importance, high incomegeneration, generation of foreign exchange, boost up exportation, promotes tourism,aesthetics, etc.
Materials –
eg. brasso, paint, wax, cowries, bones, raffia, beads, straw,wood, etc. Tools –
eg. gouges, knives, sprayers, brushes, pincers, files, abrasive papers,etc.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

(viii) Establishment of Small-scale Industry

Factors to be considered – eg. types of raw materials, labour, transport andcommunication, location of market, siting of industry/factory, insurance,entrepreneurship, utility services, branding, quality control, capital, etc.
Socio economicimportance e.g. income generation, promotion of tourism, foreign exchange earnings,high recognition of sculpture, promotion of art and appreciation, etc.
Short falls infinishing –
eg. uneven/irregular surface textures, disproportionate figures, cracks anddents on works, unstable/imbalanced works, smearing/messy, etc. Ethics of Quality Control –
eg. use of quality materials, appropriate subject, avoidance of indecent themes,(eg. vulgarism, pornography, derogatory and insulting signs and language), qualityfinishing, environmental friendly material, maintenance of clean environment. Idealstudio.
Packaging and Handling –
eg. types of packaging: primary, secondary and tertiary. Toolsand materials for packaging –
eg. Tools; knife, hammer, needle, saw, pliers, drills,staplers, scissors, etc.Materials: plywood, plastic bags, fabrics, paper, glue, cardboard,foam, saw dust, sand, wood-shavings, styrofoam, adhesive masking tape, cellotape, etc.
Techniques of Packaging –
eg. boring, wrapping, nailing, gluing, tying, boxing, etc.
Importance of Packaging andHandling –
eg. prevention of damage, shocks, hurt and damp conditions, facilitate easyand safe handling, add value to item, identification, etc.

(ix) Costing, Pricing and Marketing

Marketing of art products includes costing and pricing as well. Basic Marketing
Strategies –
eg. advertising by posters,hand bill, television, radio, word of mouth,exhibitions, bazaars,and fairs. Effective decoration and finishing, attractive packagingtransportation, are also forms of marketing.
Types of Exhibition –
eg. general, specialized.
Planning of Exhibitions –
factors to be considered eg. type of exhibition, indoor andoutdoor, what to exhibit, theme, cost involved in the exhibition, publicity, expectednumberof guests, duration/time, mounting of exhibitions, general layout for space arrangements,security, visitor’s book, sales, opening and closing, etc.
Mounting Exhibits –
factors to be considered eg. colour scheme and balance, size, weightand height of exhibits, effect of light and ventilation of room, creation of freemovement for viewing exhibits, decorate room with flowers, ribbons etc., creation ofcentre of attraction, eg. modelling, video shows, invitations, adverts, press release,brochures and catalogues, saleslist, etc.
Importance of Exhibition –
eg. it offers avenue for sales of product, serves asadvertisement for products, expresses new technology to the society, promotes the artist,education, awareness creation, edifying, etc.

(x) Managing Sculpture Enterprise

Knowledge on management is necessary. Functions of a manager – Management processinvolves: planning, organization, controlling, etc. additional skills for managementincludesupervision, budgeting, book keeping and computer skills. Attributes of a Manager -
e.g.perseverance, commitment, temperament, courage to take risk.Controlling Business Risk –
Types of risk: direct and indirect - eg. Direct: theft, fire,misuse/misappropriation of capital and profit. Indirect Risk: lack of sales due to faultyand low quality products or wrong business location, currency inflation problem,introduction of new taxes, change of labour laws, etc.
Measures of Control –
e.g. theft(regular check of stocks and finished products), hire an accountant/bookkeeper to checkthe business account every month. Increase vigilance and security to minimize theft, fires(eg. use good quality electrical appliances, make good quality electrical connections toprevent fire outbreak, make regular check on fire extinguishers)

(xi) Appreciation and Criticism in Sculpture

The process of appreciation and evaluation in sculpture; terms in appreciating -
dimentional sculptures –
e.g. content, forms, subject matter, symbolism, materials andtechniques, artist and style. Critiquing Works of art.

(xii) Portfolio of Works

Method of Compiling works; eg. photographs arranged and labelled in album or slideholder in chronological/stylistic thematic order, pictures of work stored electronically onCD, video tape, computer hard disk. Note: photographs, drawings and sketches should bemounted on cardboards and labelled, etc. Uses of Portfolio –
e.g. reference and study,exhibition of works, self evaluation. Importance of Portfolio –
e.g. keep record of works,track development of skills, for inspiration, reveals artists weakness, develop creativeability as well as quality control, help artist to be focused, develop for further studies, selfesteem and confidence.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

(xiii) Professional practices

Developing a Business planArtist’s StatementDefinition and ImportanceBusiness PlanDefinition, Importance and Preparation (steps involved)Business Brochure and CardDefinition and Importance

(xiv) Museum and Gallery Studies

- Definition, history and development of the museum.
- Functions and socio-economic importance of the museum.
- The administrative structure of the museum.
- Authenticity and neutrality of the museum.
- Examples of museums and their activities.
deal Studio –
eg. indoor areas, outdoor space, facilities needed:
eg. water, adequatelighting, good ventilation, fire extinguishers, office, washroom, various section forvarious types of work (eg. carving, casting, welding, modelling), storage area for eg.tools and materials, raw materials, for finished works etc.

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We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners