The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Government is toprepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their knowledge inGovernment, with a view to determining their suitability for placement in institutions of higherlearning in Nigeria.
These objectives are to:

i. appreciate the meaning of government;
ii. analyse the framework and specify the institutions of government;
iii. appreciate the basic principles of democratic governance and their application inNigeria;
iv. explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen;
v. appreciate the process of political development in Nigeria;
vi. evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria;
vii. understand the determinants and dynamics of foreign policy as it relates to Nigeria;
viii. assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and theworkings of international organizations.


OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Basic Concepts in Government

a. Power, Authority, Legitimacy,Sovereignty;

b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;

c. Political Processes;

Political Socialization, PoliticalParticipation, Political Culture.
i. identify the fundamental concepts ingovernance;

ii. analyse various political processes;

2. Forms of Government:

Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy,Autocracy, Republicanism, Democracydefinitions,features, merits and demerits.
i. distinguish between different forms ofgovernment.

3. Arms of Government:

a. The Legislature – types, structure,functions, powers;

b. The Executive – types, functions,powers;

c. The Judiciary – functions, powers,components.

d. Their relationships
i. identify the duties and obligations ofthe various arms of government andtheir agencies;

ii. relate each arm to its functions;

iii. appreciate how these arms interrelates.

4. Structures of Governance:

a. Unitary – features, reasons foradoption, merits and demerits

b. Federal – features, reasons foradoption, merits and demerits

c. Confederal - features, reasons foradoption, merits and demerits.
i. compare the various political structuresof governance.

5. Systems of Governance:

Presidential, Parliamentary andMonarchical.
i. distinguish between the differentsystems of governance.

6. Political Ideologies:

Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism,Socialism, Communism, Totalitarianism,Fascism, Nazism
i. differentiate between the majorpolitical ideologies;

ii. contrast modes of production,

7. Constitution:

Meaning, Sources, Functions, Types -Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.
i. Define and identify sources andfunctions of constitutions;

ii. compare the nature of constitutions.

8. Principles of Democratic Government:

Ethics and Accountability in PublicOffice, Separation of Power, Checks andBalances, Individual and CollectiveResponsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule ofLaw, Representative Government.
i. identify the principles of democraticgovernment;

ii. determine the application of theseprinciples;

9. Processes of Legislation:

Legislative Enactments – acts, edicts,bye-laws, delegated legislation, decrees.
i. analyse the processes involved in themaking of laws.

10. Citizenship:

a. Meaning, types;

b. Citizenship rights;

c. Dual citizenship, renunciation,deprivation;

d. Duties and obligations ofcitizens;

e. Duties and obligations of thestate.
i. differentiate between the variousmethods of acquiring citizenship;

ii. specify the rights and responsibilities ofa citizen;

iii. assess the obligations of the state.

11. The Electoral Process:

a. Suffrage – evolution, types;

b. Election – types, ingredients of freeand fair election;

c. Electoral System - types, advantagesand disadvantages of each;

d. Electoral Commission – functions,problems.
i. distinguish the different types offranchise

ii. identify and explain the types ofelectoral systems

iii. analyse the various electoral processes.

12. Political Parties and Party Systems:

a. Political parties – Definition,Organization, functions.

b. Party Systems – Definition,organization, functions.
i. assess the role of political parties;

ii. distinguish between types of partysystems.

13. Pressure Groups:

a. Definition, types, functions andmodes of operation.

b. Differences between Pressure Groupsand Political Parties.
i. evaluate the functions and the modusoperandi of pressure groups;

ii. distinguish between pressure groupsand political parties.

14. Public Opinion:

a. Meaning, formation andmeasurement.

b. Functions and limitations.
i. compare methods of assessing publicopinion;

ii. assess the functions of public opinion;

iii. analyse the limitations of publicopinion.

15. The Civil Service:

Definition, characteristics, functions,structure, control and problems.
i. analyse the significance of civil servicein governance.
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Pre – colonial Polities:

Pre-jihad Hausa, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo,Yoruba

a. Their structural organization;

b. The functions of their variouspolitical institutions.
i. appreciate the effectiveness of the precolonialpolitical systems;

ii. compare pre-colonial systems ofgovernance.

2. Imperialist Penetration:

a. The British process of acquisition –trade, missionary activities, companyrule, crown colony, protectorate;

b. The British colonial administrativepolicy – direct and indirect rule;

c. The French colonial administrativepolicy – assimilation and association;

d. Impact of British colonial ruleeconomic,political, socio-cultural;

e. Comparison of British and Frenchcolonial administration.
i. trace the processes of imperialistpenetration;

ii. assess the impact of British and Frenchpolicies;

iii. distinguish between British and Frenchcolonial practices.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners

3. Process of Decolonization:

a. Nationalism – Meaning, Types;

b. Nationalist Movements – emergence,goals, strategies;

c. Nationalist Leaders – HerbertMacaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe,Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello,Ladipo Solanke, Aminu Kano, J. S.Tarka, Tafawa Balewa and others;

d. Emergence of nationalist parties;

e. Influence of external factors.
i. evaluate the process of decolonization;

ii. assess the roles of nationalist leadersand parties;

iii. assess the impact of external forces andideas (Pan-Africanism, Back–to–AfricaMovements, Second World War etc).

4. Constitutional Development in Nigeria:

a. Hugh Clifford Constitution (1922)

b. Arthur Richards Constitution (1946)

c. John Macpherson Constitution (1951)

d. Oliver Lyttleton Constitution (1954)

e. Independence Constitution (1960)

Their features, merits and demerits.
i. compare the various constitutionaldevelopments.

5. Post – Independence Constitutions:

1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999–characteristics and shortcomings.
i. assess the workings of the variousconstitutions.

6. Institutions of Government in the Post
– Independence Nigeria:

a. The Legislative – structure, functionsand working.

b. The Executive – structure, functionsand workings.

c. The Judiciary – structure, functionsand workings.
i. evaluate the operations of the arms ofgovernment and their agencies, e.g thecivil service, armed forces, police,courts and others.

7. Public Commissions Established by the1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:

The Civil Service Commission,

the PublicComplaints Commission,


National BoundaryCommission and others

– objectivesfunctions and problems.
i. evaluate the operations of publiccommissions;

ii. assess the problems of the PublicCommissions and their constraints.

8. Political Parties and Party Politics inPost-Independence Nigeria:

a. First Republic

b. Second Republic

c. Third Republic

d. Fourth Republic

- Evolution, membership spread,structure etc.
i. contrast political processes in therepublics;

ii. evaluate the ideologies, structure andcomposition of the political parties.

9. The Structure and Workings ofNigerian Federalism:

a. Rationale for a Federal System;

b. Tiers of government and theirrelationship;

c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967,1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;

d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism

–census, revenue allocation, conflictsetc.

solutions e.g. Federal character,etc.
i. examine the workings of Nigerianfederalism;

ii. identify its problems;

iii. evaluate the corrective measureadopted.

10. Public Corporations and Parastatals:

a. Definition, types, purpose andfunctions;

b. Finance, control and problems;

c. Deregulation, privatization,commercialization

– objectives,features, merits and demerits;

d. Comparison between publiccorporations and parastatals.
i. examine the operations of publiccorporations and parastatals;

ii. identify the processes involved inprivatization and commercialization;

iii. assess the economic importance ofprivatization and commercialization.

11. Local Government:

a. Local government administrationprior to 1976;

b. Features of local government reforms(1976, 1989)

– structure, functions,finance and inter-governmentalrelations;

c. Traditional rulers and localgovernments;

d. Problems of local governmentadministration in Nigeria.
i. trace the evolution and structure oflocal government;

ii. identify the major problems faced bylocal governments.

12. The Military in Nigerian Politics

a. Factors that led to militaryintervention;

b. Structure of military regimes;

c. Impact of military rule – political, e.gcreation of states, introduction ofunitary system (Unification DecreeNO. 34) etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.

d. Processes of military disengagement.
i. evaluate the reasons given for militaryintervention;

ii. assess the achievements of militaryrule;

iii. determine the conditions thatnecessitated withdrawal fromgovernance.
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. Foreign Policy:

Definition, purpose, determiningfactors; formulation andimplementation.
i. Define foreign policy, identify andexplain its determinants

2. Nigeria’s Foreign Policy:

a. Relations with major powers;

b. Relations with developingcountries, e.g the Technical AidCorps (TAC), etc.

c. Nigeria’s Non-Alignment Policy.
i. identify the major objectives ofNigeria’s foreign policy.

ii. analyse Nigeria’s non-aligned posture.

3. Relations with African Countries:

a. Africa as the “centre piece” ofNigeria’s forieign policy – guidingprinciples, implementation andimplications;

b. NEPAD – origin, objectives andimplications.
i. evaluate the role of Nigeria incontinental affairs;

ii. assess the role of NEPAD indeveloping Africa.

4. Nigeria in International Organizations

a. The United Nations;

b. The Commonwealth;

c. The Organization of African Unity;

d. The African Union;

e. The Economic Community of WestAfrican States (ECOWAS);

f. The Organization of PetroleumExporting Countries (OPEC).
i. analyse the dynamics of Nigeria’sinvolvement in internationalorganizations;

ii. assess their contribution to thedevelopment of Nigeria.
OBJECTIVES, Candidates should be able to:

1. International Organizations:


b. OAU, AU;

c. Commonwealth;

d. OPEC;

e. UNO;

f. African Petroleum ProducersAssociation;

- Origin, objectives, structure, functions,achievements, problems and prospects ofthese organizations.
i. evaluate the operations of theseinternational organizations;

ii. assess the role of these organizations inworld affairs;

iii. appreciate the challenges of theseorganizations and how they can beovercome.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners


Adigwe, F (1985) Essentials of Government for West Africa, Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Anifowose, R and Enemuo, F. C (eds)(1999) Elements of Politics, Lagos; Malthouse PressLimited.

Appadorai, A. (1978) The Substance of Politics, London: Oxford University Press.

Ball, A. R. (1983) Modern Politics and Government, London: Macmillan.

Ofoegbu, R. (1977) Government for the Certificate Year, London: George Allen and Unwin.

Olawale, J. B (1987) New Topics on Ordinary Level Government, Ilesha: Jola Publishing.

Oyediran, O. Nwosu, H., Takaya, B., Anifowoshe, R., Femi, B., Godwill, O. and Adigun, A.

(1990) Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: Longman.

Oyeneye, I., Onyenwenu, M. and Olusunde, B. E. (2000)
Round-Up Government for SeniorSecondary School Certifcate Examination: A Complete Guide, Ibadan: Longman.

Oyovbaire, S., Ogunna, A. E. C., Amucheazi, E. C., Coker, H. O. and Oshuntuyi, O. (2001)

Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate Examination: Government, Ibadan: Evans.

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