HEALTH EDUCATION

WAEC SYLLABUS ON HEALTH EDUCATION

PREAMBLE

This examination syllabus is drawn from the Senior School Health Education curriculumand directed towards empowering students to have correct, adequate and timelyinformation that will make them acquire attitude and practices which will restore,maintain and promote positive health.

Since Health Education is skill-based and involves knowledge, belief, attitude andpractices, evidence of involvement in practical work will be determined through practicaltest. It is therefore, essential that the examination syllabus is used in conjunction with theTeaching curriculum.

OBJECTIVES

This examination syllabus is designed to assess the extent to which candidates have beenable to:
(1) acquire basic knowledge of the human body and necessary skills for maintenance ofhealth;
(2) acquire positive health practices in the school and community;
(3) identify and show the ecological relationship between man and his environment as abasis for preventing diseases;
(4) make observations and draw inferences from practical experiences that ay haveimplications for health;
(5) develop readiness necessary for professional training in health related careers.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION


There will be three papers – Papers 1, 2, and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will bea composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions, all of which must betaken in 1hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of two sections, Sections A and B.

Section A:

will consist of six short-structured questions, all of which must beanswered for 30 marks.

Section B:

will consist of three essay questions out of which candidates will berequired to answer two questions for 40 marks. The paper will last 1 hour.

PAPER 3:

Will be a practical test for school candidates and an alternative test of practicalwork for private candidates. The paper will last for 1¾ hours and carry 80 marks.


DETAILED SYLLABUS

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TOPICCONTENTSNOTES

A. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTHEDUCATION

Meaning and setting for health Education.
(a) Meaning
(b) Setting:
(i) home-based;
(ii) school-based;
(iii) community-based;
(iv) health facility-based;
(v) work place-based.
(c) Meaning of health promotion.

Students should visit to observe community, healthfacility and work place base, health educationprogrammes and services.

B. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

1. Cells and tissues of Human Body.
(a) Types of cell:
(i) somatic cells;
(ii) sex cells.

Structure of a typical animal cell and functions of itsparts should be discussed.

(b) Cell division:
(i) Mitosis;
(ii) Meiosis

Differences between mitosis and meiosis should beemphasized.

(c) Cell differentiation:
Formation of tissues,
Organs and Systems.

Mention should be made of epithelial, connective andmuscular tissue, an organ and a system should beexplained.

(d) Growth and development

(1) Differences between growth and developmentshould be emphasized.
(2) Factors that affect growth and developmentshould be discussed.

2. Sense Organs(a) Structure and functions of the followingsense organs:
(i) eye;
(ii) ear;
(iii) skin;
(iv) nose;
(v) tongue.

Accommodation should be discussed.
Process of hearing and balancing should be discussed

3. Systems of the Body
(a) Skeletal system and muscles
(i) The general plan of the axial andappendicular skeleton.

A chart/model of a human skeleton should beexamined.

(ii) Functions of the skeletal system.

Types of bones that make up the mammalian skeletonshould be identified.

(iii) Joints: Structures and types.

(1) Emphasis should be on synovial joint.
(2) Location of the different types of jointshould be identified.
(3) Specific examples should be used toillustrate the classes of levers.

(iv) Structures and types of musclestissues.

The three different types of muscles should bediscussed in relation to their functions.

(v) Movement.

Reference should be made to origin and insertion ofmuscles in relation to movement.

(b) Circulatory System
(i) Structure and functions.
(I) Heart

Candidates should examine the heart of a dissectedmammal.

(II) Blood and lymph vessels

Pulse rate should be counted. The web of a toad/frogshould be examined with a hand lens to observe thecapillaries.
The importance of lymph nodes should bementioned.

(ii) Composition of blood and lymph

Prepared slides of blood should be observed undermicroscope.

(iii)
(I) Blood and lymphcirculation

(II) Process of blood clotting

Pulmonary and systemic circulation should beemphasized.

(iv) Blood groups, rhesus factorshemoglobin, genotype.

The relevance of these factors in relation to bloodtransfusion should be mentioned.

(v) Diseases disorder of thecirculatory system and theircauses; sickle cell anaemia,leukaemia, haemophiliaarteriosclerosis, hypertension,coronary thrombosis and stroke.

(1) Heredity aspect of sickle cell andhaemophiliashould be discussed.
(2) Prevention of anaemia and arteriosclerosisshould be discussed.

(c) Digestive system
(i) Organs of the digestive system andtheir functions.

Candidates should examine the alimentary canal of adissected mammal.The location and function ofaccessory organs of digestion should be emphasized.

(ii) Process of digestion

Digestive enzymes should be discussed in relation tosubstrates and end-product.

(iii) Absorption, assimilation andmetabolism.

(1) Mentioned should be made of tissue respirationin relation to metabolism.

(2) Osmosis and diffusion should be demonstratedand their importance in absorption should beemphasized.

(iv) Diseases/disorders of the digestivesystem and their prevention.

Importance of proper eating habits and the effects ofover-eating and under-eating should be discussed.

(d) Excretory System
(i) Structure and functions of thekidney and skin.

(1) Candidates should examine the parts of theurinary system of a dissected mammal.

(2) Candidates should examine prepared slides ofthe skin under the microscope.

(ii) Process of urine formation.

Reference should be made to the excretory functions ofthe lungs.
The use of dialysis machine for kidneyfailure should be mentioned.

(e) Respiratory System
(i) Structure and functions of therespiratory system

Candidates should examine the respiratory organs of adissected mammals.

(ii) Process of respiration
(I) Mechanism of breathing

Experiment to demonstrate the inhalation andexhalation of air should be performed.

(II) Gaseous exchange.

Total, compIemental and residual air should beexplained.
Experiment to show that expired air contains morecarbon dioxide and water vapour should be performed.

(III) Tissue/Cellularrespiration.

(iii) Diseases/disorders of therespiratory system and their control.

(f) Nervous System:
(i) Structure and functions of thecomponents of the nervous system
(ii) Voluntary and involuntary actions
(iii) Diseases/disorders of the nervoussystem.

The brain, spinal cord and nerves should be discussed.

The reflex arc should be studied.

(g) Endocrine System:
Location of the different endocrine glands,the hormones produced and theirfunctions.
(h) Homeostasis

(1) Characteristics of endocrine glands shouldmentioned.
(2) Charts/models should be used to study thelocation of the glands.
(3) The effects of over- and under – secretion ofhormones should be emphasized.

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Physiological factors affectinghomeostatis

(1) Body temperature, blood sugar level, waterbalance, electrolytes balance, pH and bloodpressure should be highlighted.
(2) Candidates should test urine with litmus paperand also, count pulse rate.
(3) Mention should be made of the positive andnegative feed back control system.

4. Posture and Postural Defects.
(i) Definition;
(ii) Characteristics of correct posture.

Posture should be related to the following:
sitting;
standing;
walking and
lifting.

(iii) Determination of correct postures
(iv) Types of postural defects:
Flat foot;
scoliosis, kyphosis andlordosis

The roles of nutrition and exercise as determinants ofcorrect posture should be discussed.

(v) Effects of incorrect posture onphysicalappearance, position and functions ofbody organs.

(1) The causes of postural defects e.g. habits,accidents, heredity and diseases should bediscussed.

(2) The roles of orthopaedichospital andphysiotherapy unit in the correction of posturaldefect should be mentioned.

C. PERSONAL HEALTH

1. Meaning and importance of physical health.
2. Personal hygiene
3. Promotion and maintenance of health:
(a) Definition
(b) Factors and their roles in the maintenance ofhealth.

Care of body parts including the teeth, mouth, hair,hands and nails should be discussed.

4. Health Screening
(a) Eye defects and their corrections.
Myopia;
Hypermetropia;
Astigmatism;
Presbyopia;
Squints (cross eye).

The use of snellen chart for vision screening should bementioned.
The roles of eye specialist in the correctionof the defects should be discussed.

(b) Auditory defects
(c) Conductive impairment

Otitis media should be mentioned

(ii) Neurosensory impairment
(iii) Disorder of the skin
(iv) Care of the eye, ear and skin.

The use of tuning fork; audiometer, guitar strings andwrist watch in auditory screening should be mentioned.Also, mention should be made of the sign language.

5. Dental health education
(i) Meaning and types
(ii) Types of human teeth
(iii) Teeth diseases
Dental caries and gingivitis should bementioned.

Structure and functions of the different types of teethshould be discussed.

D. COMMUNITY HEALTH

1. Community health services
(a) Definition
(b) Providers:
(i) Orthodox services e.g. primary health care;
(ii) Traditional services e.g. bone setters,birth attendance.
(c) Community efforts in health promotion.

Advantages and disadvantages of traditional medicineshould be mentioned.

2. School health programme
(a) Definition
(b) Components
(i) Skill-based health education

Awareness campaign should be discussed.

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(ii) Healthful school environment
(iii) School feeding services
(iv) School health and nutrition services
(v) School, home and communityrelationship.

Both physical and biological environment should bediscussed.

(c) Goals and Objectives.
(d) Linkages for promotion (initiatives)
(i) Health Promoting School (HPS)
(ii) Child-Friendly School (CFS)
(iii) Focusing resources on EffectiveSchools Health (FRESH)
(iv) Life Skills (LS)
(v) Education for All (EFA)

3. Family health
(a) Meaning
(b) Different aspects of family health:
Matenal and child health
(c) Family size and budgeting

Antenatal care, immunization, oral rehydration therapy(ORT), breast feeding and safe motherhood should bediscussed.

4. Ageing and death education
(a) Definition and features of the elderly.
(b) Ways of relating with the elderly.
(c) Meaning of grief and death.
(d) Common causes of death.

5. Epidemiology and vital statistics
(a) Definitions

Candidates should be able to define epidemiology, vitalstatistics and population dynamics.

(b) Components of vital statistics
(i) Birth rate
(ii) Mortality rate
(iii) Morbidity rate

The importance and use of health records should bestressed.

(c) Uses of the major components of vitalstatistics.

Effects of poor sanitation and pest infestation in homeshould be discussed.

E. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

1. Housing.
(a) Criteria for good housing to includesiting, ventilation, lighting andsanitation.
(b) Components of a standard house.

Effects of poor sanitation and pest infestation in homeshould be discussed.

2. Water supply
(a) Definition and sources
(b) Purification and uses.

Effects of substandard housing on health should bediscussed.

3. Waste disposal
(a) Meaning
(b) Types:
(i) refuse;
(ii) Sewage.
(c) Methods

Sources should include rain, borehole, rivers, streams,springs, well pond, pipe borne water

4. Pollution
(a) Meaning
(b) Types: air, water, soil and noise.
(c) Meaning and sources of pollutants.
(d) Health consequences of pollution.

Advantages and disadvantages of each method shouldbe discussed.

5. Industrial occupation
(a) Meaning
(b) Programmes: Industrial health services
(c) Occupation hazard

The need for health care and rehabilitation should bediscussed.

6. Pests and vectors control
(a) Meaning
(b) Habitats of pests and vectors
(c) Harmful effects and control.

The need for health insurance schemes should bestressed.
Students should be able to identify to differentiatebetween pests and vectors.

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F. NUTRITION AND FOOD NUTRIENTS

Nutrition
(i) Classes, sources and functions of foodnutrients.
(ii) Caloric value of food nutrients

Tests for starch, simple and complex sugars, proteinsand fats should be carried out.
Local example of sources of food nutrients should bementioned.

2. Balanced/adequate diets
(a) Definition
(b) Classification
(c) Nutritional problems

Caloric needs in relations to age, occupation and healthcondition should be discussed.
Food deficiency diseases should be emphasized.

3. Factors influencing feeding habits/choice offoods

Factors responsible for unbalanced diet and effectsassociated with poor diet should be discussed.

4. Water

Factors should include: availability, religion education,age, belief, health condition and cost.

5. Nutritional processes:
ingestion, digestion,absorption, assimilation and metabolism anddefecation/ejection.

The role of water in relation to nutrition should bediscussed.

6. Beverages
(a) Definition
(b) Types and effects

Negative and positive effects should be stressed.Nutritional value of non-alcoholic beverages should bestressed.

7. Diet for different group of people:
children,male adolescent;
female adolescent;
athletes;
pregnant woman;
adult and aged.

Charts should be used to show diets for the differentgroups of people.

8. Food hygiene, preservation and storage
(a) Meaning and Principles of food hygiene

Food handling; cleanliness of cooking utensils andsurroundings should be discussed. Effects of poorfood handling should be stressed.

(b) Effects of methods of food preparationon nutrients.

Effects of washing, boiling, frying, baking androasting should be discussed.

(c) Methods of food preservation:
Smoking/drying/dehydration,Freezing/refrigeration, addition ofchemicals/sugar salts,Bottling/pickling/canning.

G. SAFETY EDUCATION AND FIRST AID

1. First Aid

(a) Meaning/aims and principles of first aid

(b) First aid kit

(c) Specific emergency conditions cuts;Wounds; bleeding dislocation; fractures;burns; scalds; shocks;asphysia/suffocation; poisoning.

(d) Agencies providing First Aid Services.

(e) Disaster

(i) Meaning and types

(ii) Disaster relief activities

(f) Accident

(i) Types and causes

(ii) Prevention

(g) Disability and rehabilitation

(i) Meaning

(ii) Types and prevention.

H. DRUG, ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO EDUCATION

1. Drug Education
(a) Terminologies in drug education
(b) Classes of drugs commonly abused.
(c) Ways of taking drugs into the body
(d) Drug abuse and consequences of selfmedication.

Mention should include drug abuse, drugdependence, drug misuse, drug addiction, selfmedication, alcoholism, rehabilitation

2. Behaviour altering chemicals
(a) Tobacco
(i) Components
(ii) Effects of smoking on health.
(b) Alcohol on health
Effects of alcohol on health.
(c) Drugs
Effects of drug on health

This should include oral, injection, inhalation,topical and anal.

Prevention of drug abuse should be highlighted.

I. COMMUNICABLE AND NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES

1. Diseases

Meaning and classes of diseases.

2. Communicable diseases

(a) Definition

(b) Classification of communicablediseases.

(i) Air-borne/Respiratory diseasesCommon cold, measles, whooping cough,poliomyelitis, tuberculosis and cerebro-spinalmeningitis, diphtheria.

(ii) Water/food-borne diseases: Dysentery,cholera, typhoid fever andschistosomiasis, guinea worm

(iii) Insect-borne diseases: Malaria, yellowfever, trypanosomiasis and filariasis

The life cycle of the pathogen of each diseaseshould be discussed.

(iv) Worm infection:

(i) Ascarislumbricoides (round worm)

(ii) Taeniasolium (tape worm)

(iii) Ancylostomaduodenale (Hook worm)

(iv) Dracunculusmedinensis (Guinea worm)

(v) Animal-borne diseases rabies,leptospoirosis

(vi) Contact diseases diseases;Gonorrhoea,syphilis, Tineapedis (athlete/foot),Taeniacapitis (ringworm) leprosy, scabiesand Acquired immune DeficiencySyndrome (AIDS)

(c) Factors necessary for communicable diseasesto occur:

(i) Causative agent

(ii) Susceptible host;

(iii) Transmission route (environment)

(d) Non-communicable diseases:

Types

(i) Deficiency (scurvy, pellagra, rickets,Kwashiorkor, anaemia, beriberi etc)

(ii) Diseases due to growth in cells, heredityand normal disorders (cancer, diabetes,epilepsy, haemophilia, heart disease,hypertension. Ulcer, mental illness, sicklecell, rheumatism, infertility, asthma,albinism etc.

The life cycle of each worm should be discussedwith the aid of a chart.

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J. FAMILY LIFE AND HUMAN SEXUALITYEDUCATION

1. Human Reproduction
(a) Definition of terms: Reproduction; sexgametes; ovulation; menstruation;fertilization; pregnancy and gestation.

Secondary sexual characteristics in boys and girlsshould be discussed.

(b) Structures and functions of male andfemale reproductive organs.

Candidates should observe/study the parts of thereproductive organs in a mammal. Menstrualcycle, sex determination, ante‐natal care should bediscussed.

(c) Conception, pregnancy, foetaldevelopment and child birth

Causes of infertility should be discussed.
Artificial insemination and text tube babies shouldbe explained.

(d) Diseases disorders of the reproductivesystem

Meaning of sexuality, sexuality education, sexualreproductive health rights, gender and equalityshould be discussed

2. Human Sexuality Education(a) Meaning and importanceLife skills (Assertive Negotiation andcommunication skills)

3. Family and family member roles.(a) The family – Meaning and types(b) Family size

4. Family life challenges: widowhood; singleparenthood, pre-marital and extra-maritalaffairs, in-laws etc.(a) Agencies promoting healthy familyliving

5. Family planning and safe motherhood.(a) Meaning and need for family planning
(b) Birth control methods
(c) Safe motherhood

Candidates should be able to distinguish betweenfamily planning and safe motherhood.

5. Population Education

(a) Meaning of population and populationeducation.

(b) Census and its problems

(c) Small and large population

Candidates should be able to distinguish betweenpopulation and census.


Advantages of accurate census should be discussed.

K. EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL HEALTH

1. Interrelationship

Meaning and the interrelationship between emotionalhealth and social health should be discussed.

2. Attributes:
(a) Definition of personality andpersonality traits
(b) Personality problems and solution

The attributes of emotional and social health should bediscussed.

Candidates should be able to identify personalproblems and proffer solutions.

3. Mental health:
(a) Definition
(b) Promotion
(c) Types and prevention
(d) Importance

Candidates should be able to state factors that promotemental health.

Types, causes prevention and management of mentalhealth should be discussed.

L. CONSUMER HEALTH EDUCATION

1. Consumer health products and services

Importance of mental and social health should bediscussed.

1. The importance of checking label expiry dateson products before purchase should behighlighted.

Various agencies promoting consumers health shouldbe discussed.

Mention features of genuine products and services

2. Laws protecting the consumer

3. Factors influencing choice of consumerproducts; Authencity; cost; availability;accessibility; availability and advertisement.

Various types of health services: traditional medicine,orthodox medicine, alternative methods of healing(acupuncture, yoga and faith healing) should bediscussed.

4. Consumer health care services

5. Quacks and quackery meaning and types

1. Different types of quackery such asmechanical, electrical, drug and cosmetic andmedical quackery should be discussed

2. The danger of quacks and quackery should behighlighted.

6. Health insurance and advertisement ofhealth products and services

1. Meaning and importance of health insurance
2. State of health insurance
3. Advertisement of health products and consumerservices.

7. Nostrum:
(a) Definition and types
(b) Reasons for avoiding nostrum.

Types should include:
(1) Health tonic;
(2) Miracle substances;
(3) Magic portions;
(4) Amulets and talisman.

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Materials needed in Health Education Laboratory/Examination

1. Models of various organs of the body;
2. Models of various parts of the body e.g. tooth;
3. Human skeleton;
4. Bones of the body;
5. Contraceptive devices;
6. Reagents for testing of starch, protein, fat;
7. Road safety signs;
8. Different types of safety elements;
9. Posters/charts of systems of the body e.g. reproductive, digestive, excretory;
10. First aid box and kits;
11. Fire extinguisher;
12. Sand bucket;
13. Photographs of health facilities and workers e.g. doctors , nurses, dentist at work;
14. Photographs of methods of sewage and refuse disposals;
15. Microscope
16. Stethoscope
17. Preserved worms;
18. Preserved pests and vectors
19. Photographs/posters of various types of communicable and non-communicable diseases;
20. Model/poster showing parts of the body;
21. Materials for personal hygiene e.g. toothpaste, comb, toothbrush;
22. Dissecting set
23. Photographs/posters of accident scenes;
24. Photographs/posters showing methods of food preservation
25. Photographs/posters showing disaster scenes;
26. Safety;
27. Photographs/posters of drugs commonly misused/abused
28. Tobacco products;
29. Hand lens;
30. Real objects/photographs/poster/charts of classes of food;
31. Photographs/posters showing correct postures
32. Photographs/posters showing postural abnormalities;
33. Poster/real object of sphygmomanometer, thermometer, litmus paper snellen chart.

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Facts about Teachers

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