FORESTRY

WAEC SYLLABUS ON FORESTRY

PREAMBLE

The Senior High School Forestry Syllabus has been structured to assess candidates’ knowledge offorestry and forest conservation. It will also assess candidates’ knowledge and skills in forestrypractices that will form the basis for sound tertiary education in forestry and also make thememployable in the forestry industry and related disciplines.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The syllabus will seek, among others, to assess candidates:
(1) appreciation of the importance of forests to life;
(2) knowledge and skills in current forestry practices;
(3) understanding of the effects of population growth on forests;
(4) understanding of the causes and effects of forest degradation;
(5) understanding of the regulations governing the use of the forests and forest resources;
(6) knowledge of the functions of forestry sector institutions;
(7) basic skills in establishing and managing forest plantations;
(8) ability to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of forests.

REQUIREMENTS

(1) Schools offering Forestry are expected to keep demonstration plots where a variety ofboth indigenous and exotic forest trees are grown and maintained to develop their skillsin the management of forest stands.
(2) It is recommended that students of the subject should visit forest reserves, national parks,zoos and forest plantations, forestry institutions and industries for experiential learning aspart of their course work.
(3) It is also recommended that they will keep practical notebooks and specimen albums.These should contain records of activities based on laboratory, nursery and fieldobservations to develop their documentation skills.

EXAMINATION SCHEME


There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:

Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions, all of which must beanswered within 1 hour for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:

Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to answer fourquestions within 2 hours for 20 marks each.

PAPER 3:

Will be a practical paper for school candidates or alternative to practical work testfor private candidates. It will consist of four questions all of which must beanswered within 2hours for 60 marks.


SCOPE OF CONTENTS

Questions will be set on the topics listed in the column headed ‘content’. The notes therein are intended toindicate the scope of the questions but are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations andillustrations.
SECTIONTOPICSCONTENTSNOTES
SECTION A

INTRODUCTION TOFORESTRY

1. Basic concepts of forestand forestry.Candidates will be examined on the meaning offorest and forestry. Knowledge of the differencesbetween Forestry and Agriculture in terms of landoccupancy, time frame; risk etc. and the businessaspects of forestry will be assessed.
The functions of the forest; types of plants in theforest (trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers, special plants);the local and botanical names of timber trees willalso be assessed.
Candidates’ ability to describe plant habitats i.e.water -logged (aquatic), dry land, valley/slope, hilltops (terrestrial) and on plants (arboreal) and to namethe types of plants found in the various habitats willbe assessed.
Types of animals found in the forest; (birds, insects,mammals, reptiles, amphibians, snails) andcharacteristics of the habitats of the animals arerequired.
2. Introduction to ForestEcology.
(a) Concept of forestEcology.
Knowledge of the characteristics of the Forestenvironment; its physical components; and themeaning of forest ecology is required.
(b) Forest EcosystemThe meaning of ecosystem and examples/types ofecosystem in various habitats (aquatic, terrestrial,arboreal); the major components of the ecosystemand their functions are required.
Understanding of food chains and food webs and thetypes of producer – consumer relationships includingsymbiotic associations eg. rhizobium in the varioushabitats in the forest environment will be assessed.Differences between saprophytes and epiphytes arealso required.
(c) Ecosystem functionsKnowlege of ecosystem functions (Regulation,supporting, cultural) will be assessed. Effects of goodand degraded ecosystems on health is also required.
3. Ecological Zones
(a) Vegetation Zones
The characteristics of the major vegetation zonesand vegetation types in West Africa will be assessed.Comparisons of the various zones in terms ofdifferences in plant species will be required.The typical plants and animals and theircharacteristics and the various plant and animalassociations in the zones will be assessed.The vegetation types are Wet-evergreen, Moistevergreen,Moist semi-deciduous, Dry semideciduous,Mangroves and Savannah.
(b) Factors AffectingDistribution ofVegetation.Factors affecting the distribution of vegetationnamely; Climatic (rainfall and temperature), Edaphic(soil factors) and Biotic factors will be assessed.
(c) Forest Types
(i) Comparison ofForest Types.
The Distribution, Composition and Structure ofTropical High Forest (Tropical rain forest, tropicalmoist semi-deciduous forest), Savannah, CoastalScrub and Grassland is required. Characteristics ofvirgin or primeval, secondary, natural and artificialforests are also required.
(ii) Land usePractices.Land use practices in the different vegetation zoneswill be assessed.
(d) Major Forest Typesin Relation toLatitudes.The characteristics of the following major foresttypes in relation to latitude i.e. Tropical, TemperateConiferous and Arctic forest types is required.Understanding of the relationship betweentemperature and latitude in the determination of the forest types, and the knowledge of the characteristicsand distribution of angiosperms and gymnospermsare required.
4. Introduction toWildlife
(a) Concept ofWildlife
Understanding of the term wildlife and knowledge ofwildlife resources in Ghana will be assessed.
(b) Identification ofWildlife speciesKnowledge of the common and scientific names ofwildlife species is required.
(c) Importance ofWildlifeThe importance of wildlife to the Socio-economy;Environment, Forestry, Tourism and Scientificresearch will be assessed.
(d) Endangered, Rareand CommonWildlife SpeciesExamples of the wildlife species that are Endangered(e.g. Elephants), Rare (e.g. Porcupine) and Common(e.g. grasscutter); and the reasons why the wildlifespecies are in those states will be assessed.
(e) Wildlife ReservesTypes and examples of wildlife reserves in Ghanawill be assessed.
The types of wildlife reserves are as follows:
(i) National Parks e.g. Mole, Kakum, Bui.
(ii) Game Production Reserves e.g. ShaiHills
(iii) Wildlife Sanctuaries e.g. Buabeng-Fiema, Owabi
(iv) Strict Nature Reserves e.g. DigyaThe features and location of the various wildlifereserves is also required.
(f) Wildlife ManagementPracticesManagement practices associated with the variouswildlife reserves and zoos; and protection of gamereserves against poachers will be examined.
5. Plant parts and TreeIdentification
(a) Plant Parts andFunctions
The morphological and anatomical features of plantsand their functions will be assessed. Anatomy of theleaf, stem and roots; covering tissues such as xylem,phloem, cambium, epidermis, cortex and pith isrequired.
(b) Identification of TreesAbility to identify trees using the observablefeatures of tree parts such as leaves, bark, buttressand stem is required.

Knowledge of local/trade names and scientificnames and application of rubrics of scientificnomenclature are required.

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SECTION B

FOREST ESTATES

1.Concept of Forest Estates.The processes for Reservation andConstitution of a forest estate; the role of aReserve Settlement Commissioner; Internal andExternal Pillaring and Admitted Rights.Differences between Protected forest and Nonprotectedforest is required.
2. Management of ForestEstatesSystems of Management and Development ofPublic and Private Estates will be examined.Forest estate management problems such asBushfires, Illegal farming, Illegal felling, Chainsawingand Illegal mining and their solutions will beassessed.
Understanding of bushfires as
(i) management problem, and
(ii) management tool is required.
3.Current State of theForestKnowledge of historical facts of Ghana’s forest:area, composition of forest resources, andpopulation growth showing the trend of forestdepletion from the past to present; i.e. from thebeginning of the century through independence tothe current estimate of closed forest is required.
4. Protective MeasuresForest resources threatened by over-exploitation andmeasures introduced by theForest Services Division to stop over-exploitationand protect the forest resources; including
- Ban on log exports,
- Star rating of species,
- Differential stumpage fees,
- Participatory forestry,
- Yield selection and approval,
- Acquisition of permits and felling rights isrequired.
5. Deforestation
(a) Forms and Causes
Understanding of the term deforestation; theindicators or manifestations of deforestation inthe environment and the causes of deforestationthrough human activity; bushfires, farmingactivities, felling of trees for various purposes,settlement and urbanization, etc. is required.
(b) Effects of deforestationThe effects of deforestation on
(i) Soil fertility
(ii) Animal habitat/population
(iii) Economy
(iv) Environment
are required.
(c) Control ofDeforestationControl measures such as appropriate farm practices,education, control of indiscriminate tree felling,enforcement of forest laws and regulations,appropriate harvesting and milling equipment;and Intervention programmes such as education,rehabilitation, afforestation and reforestation arerequired.
6. Reforestation,
Afforestation andReafforestion.
The meanings of reforestation, afforestation andreafforestation and the differences between themare required.`Understanding of silvicultural terminologies suchas silvics, silviculture, soil seed bank, shadedemandingplants, light- demanding plants, plantsuccession and forest gaps is also required.
7. Natural Regeneration
(a) Concept of naturalregeneration
Understanding of the concept of naturalregeneration, soil seed bank, gaps (natural) isrequired.
(b) Factors influencingthe choice ofnaturalregenerationUnderstanding of the concept of naturalregeneration, soil seed bank, gaps (natural) isrequired.Factors leading to the choice of naturalregeneration i.e. topography and slope, type offorest, level and extent of deforestation, occurrenceof seed bearing (mother) trees will be assessed.
(c) Succession innatura regenerationThe stages of Succession (primary, secondary andclimatic climax) and examples of light and shadetolerant trees are required.
(d) Interventionmethods during naturalregenerationWhen to use intervention methods such as line andspot planting to supplement natural regeneration potential of forest is required.Advantages of natural regeneration over artificialregeneration are also required.
(e) Other interventionmeasures
(i) Agro-forestry
The meaning of the term agro-forestry;Knowledge and skills in carrying out agro-forestrypractices such as Agro-silviculture, alley cropping,mulching, pruning etc. are required.

Characteristics of plants suitable for agro-forestry;the benefits derived from practising agro-forestrysuch as providing mulch (green manure), pruningmaterial for fodder, companion food, fire woodfrom the same piece of land area; and its role inplant nutrient recycling is required.

Knowledge of Silvo-pastoral and Agro-silvopastoralpractices is also required.
(ii) Taungya PracticesUnderstanding of the concept of Taungya,historical background, the factors/conditions thatinfluence the choice of taungya in forest estate andthe advantages and disadvantages of the practice arerequired.
8. Artificial RegenerationUnderstanding of the concept of artificialregeneration (forest plantations) with regard to theuse of indigenous species or exotic species in pureor mixed stands; and the advantages anddisadvantages of the use of exotic species inplantation development are required.
9. Invasive Alien speciesKnowledge of invasive alien plantse.g.
Aquatic: Eichlorniacrassipes (water hyacinth);Salviniamolesta (Kariba weed), Pistiastratoites(water lettuce), Mimosa pigra(large sensitive plant)
Terrestrial:Chromolaenaodorata (Acheampongweed), Broussonetiapapyrifera (Pulp mulberry –York), Leucaenaleucocephala

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SECTION C

PLANTATIONESTABLISHMENT AND,FORESTMENSURATION

1. Plantation DevelopmentThe purpose of plantation establishment anddifferences between plantation and natural forest isrequired.
(a) Factors influencingplantation developmentUnderstanding of factors such as the followingthat influence plantation development will beassessed:
(i) Deficit of wood for industrial and domestic use.
(ii) Level of environmental degradation.
(iii) Need to improve upon the stocking ofexisting tree species.
(iv) Need for specific tree type for industrialpurposes.
(b) Plantation Planningand DesignAbility to plan and design a plantation consideringits objectives, site selection and preparation, speciesselection, cost etc. is required.
2. Nursery EstablishmentThe functions and importance of a nursery as asupply source of seedlings of high quality isrequired. Knowledge of types of nurseries(permanent and flying or temporary nurseries) isalso required.
(a) Cultural PracticesBed preparation and other cultural practices such aspricking out; stumping; stripling; hardening-off;transplanting; seed collection; storage; treatmentand sowing; watering; weeding and shading will beassessed.
(b) Nursery Tools andEquipmentKnowledge of types of nursery tools and equipmentsuch as pick-axe, shovel, rake, hoe, wheel barrow,cutlass, watering can and their uses will also beassessed.
(c) Nursery Pests andDiseasesKnowledge of nursery pests such as slugs/snails andtermites; the nature of damage caused by the pestsand their control is required.
Knowledge of nursery diseases, such as damping offand rust, their symptoms and control is also required.
(d) Costing NurseryEstablishmentKnowledge of various sources of cost in establishing
a nursery grouped into:
(i) Direct costs: raw materials, labour andexpenses for tools etc, and
(ii) Indirect costs: cost of work-related materials e.g. stationery and other consumables;
maintenance costs, rent of nursery plot, willbe assessed.

Ways of controlling nursery cost and record keepingwill also be assessed.
3. Planting and Tending
(a) Land Preparation
Site clearing and pegging at required spacing isrequired.
(b) Seedling PlantingUse of appropriate methods of planting seedlings isrequired.
(c) Tending OperationsTending operations and the importance of eachtending operation is required.
The operations required include Weeding(complete, spot and line), Beating up, Pruningand Thinning.
The effects of improper tending such as poorheight and diameter growth, early branching andpoor wood quality will also be required.
(d) Operational CostsKnowledge of sources of operational costs(direct and indirect costs) and their significancein management is required.
Knowledge of kinds of records to be kept on aplantation and the Importance of Record Keepingis also required.
4. Forest Mensuration
(a) Meaning, Importanceand Purpose
Understanding of the term forest mensuration and itsimportance;
and the purpose of mensuration inForestry including the comparison of current andfuture states of the forest, determination of quantityof trees, costing and pricing, management, etc. arerequired.
(b) MeasuringInstrumentsand EquipmentKnowledge of and skills in the use of tools,instruments and equipment for forest mensurationare required. The tools, instruments andequipment include Haga altimeter, tape,clinometer, compass, measuring chain, rangingpoles and arrows.
Knowledge of the paramenters measured and theunits of measurement in the metric system isrequired. Ability to determine height, diameter, girthand volume of trees is also required.
(c) Enumeration ofGrowing Stock andSampling Methods.Kinds of enumeration (100%, 5%,2%) ofgrowing stock; sampling and sampling methodsadopted in forest mensuration (selective, systematicand random sampling) is required.
(d) SurveysUnderstanding of survey, kinds of survey (stocksurvey, strip survey and land survey) and itssignificance will be assessed. Knowledge of and useof conventional keys/symbols in recording botanicalnames of trees is required.

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SECTION D

HARVESTING ANDMARKETING OFFOREST RESOURCES

1. Harvesting of Timber
(a) Factors to consider/Preharvestingactivities.
Factors to consider before harvesting timber; andthe pre-harvesting activities carried out will beassessed. These include stock survey,reconnaissance and field inspections, pre-fellinginspection and selection of trees to fell.
(b) Procedures tofollowThe procedures to follow in harvesting timber innatural Forests and Plantations is required. Theseinclude permit acquisition, yield approval (fornatural forest); felling, extraction and measurement.
(c) Log MarkingsKnowledge of how logs are marked andinterpretation of log markings; namely, propertymark, locality mark, compartment number, stocksurvey number, tree number, reserve code and lognumber will be assessed.
(d) Harvesting,Extraction andTransportationProcessesThe following processes will be assessed:Felling and cross-cutting, Hauling, Marking,Loading and Transportation.
(e) HarvestingEquipment andSafety MeasuresKnowledge of the various equipment for harvestingtimber including chain-saw, hand saw, axe andcutlass and their advantages and disadvantages isrequired. Safety measures taken when harvestingtimber such as use of safety gear, directional felling,staff training will also be assessed.
2. Harvesting of Non-Timber ForestProducts (NTFPs)Examples of non-timber forest products includingMarantaceae leaves, chewing sticks, plant medicines,canes, rafters, bush meat is required.Knowledge of methods of harvesting NTFPs. ie.Hunting (bushmeat), Gathering (Leaves, food, snails,medicine, mushroom), Trapping (birds, bushmeat)considering the safety and sustainability of eachmethod is required.
3. Uses of HarvestedForest ProductsCommon uses of forest products e.g. shelter,furniture, household utilities, artefacts, food, andmedicine is required.
4. Harvesting of WildlifeKnowledge of wildlife harvesting techniques namely;
hunting, trapping, baiting and gathering; and thesustainability of the harvesting techniques will beassessed.
Knowledge of endangered, rare and common speciesand reasons for them being endangered, rare orcommon will be assessed
5. Harmful WildlifeHarvesting Practices.Harmful wildlife harvesting practices such as use ofchemicals, fire, gin-trap and measures to controlthem will be assessed.
Measures aimed at reducing wildlife harvestingincluding training and education, sanctions andconfiscation of harmful equipment, close and openhunting seasons, hunting permits and ban onnight hunting required.
6. Marketing of ForestProducts
(a) Classification offorest products
Classification of forest products into direct andindirect benefits are required.
(i) Direct benefits: Timber and Non-timber forestproducts
(ii) Indirect benefits: Non-tangible products
(b) Contribution offorest products tonational economyContribution of forest products to income andemployment generation will be assessed.
(c) Demand for forestproducts
(i) Factors affectingdemand for forest products
Factors which affect demand for forest products,including
- Demand spectrum of selected forest products
- Local and external markets for products
- Role of forest-based industries
- Current use is required.
(ii) Types of forestproducts demandedby the local marketand foreign marketForest products demanded locally includingbushmeat, pestles, wrappers,chewing stick,timber, mushroom, medicinal plants etc. and thosedemanded by foreign market including processedtimber, medicinal plants, rattan, live animals,animal trophies etc. will be assessed.
(iii) Differences indemand forproductsReasons for differences in demand for products onboth local and foreign markets will be assessed.
These include
- differences in taste
- differences in lifestyle
- differences in the level of economics development
- quality of produce
- availability of produce
(iv) Socio-economicbenefits and effectsof demand forproductSocio-economic benefits and effectsof demand for forest products such as increasedrevenue, employment opportunities and depletion ofresources will also be assessed.
7. Marketing Agencies andtheir functionsThe various agencies involved in the marketing offorest products and their functions is required.
Theagencies include the following:
Wood products
-GEPC, TIDDOther products like medicinal plants, wood carving,rattan productsetc.
- GEPC and other privatecompanies.
8. Forest Industries
(a) Timber Industriesand Timber Products.
Different types of forest industries e.g. sawmills,plywood mills, chipboard mills, their locations andsources of raw materials will be assessed.
The contribution of the forest industries to theeconomy with emphasis on timber processing, rangeof products; marketing, employment opportunities,and export earnings will be required.
Processes involved in timber processing and theproducts obtained namely sawn boards; ( 2 x 4, 2 x 6,1 x 8, 1 x 12 etc.) veneer and plywood will berequired.
Sawmilling equipment used in processing the timberinto the products eg. bandmill, slice veneerequipment, rotary veneer equipment will also be assessed.

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(b) Career and TrainingOpportunitiesForestry training institutions in Ghana and jobopportunities in Forestry and forestry-related careerssuch as carpentry and furniture, wood carving, woodmarketing and export, wood
9. Establishing enterprisesin forestryKnowledge of the factors and resources forestablishing forest enterprises is required.
Factors -
e.g. Identification of business opportunities inforestry, identification of a forestry product orservice needed.
Resources:- land, capital, materials and structuresetc.
Procedures for establishing enterprises in forestry
SECTION E

FORESTRY SECTORSTRUCTURES

1. Policy-making,Implementation,Monitoring andEvaluation.Functions of the Ministry responsible for forestry
(Ministry of Land, Forestry and Mines) and thestructures and functions of the ForestryCommission (FC) will be assessed.
Functions of the following implementing agencieswill also be assessed:
Forest Services Division (FSD),
WildlifeDivision (WD) and
Timber IndustryDevelopment Division (TIDD).
2. Training and ResearchRoles of the following training and researchinstitutions for improving the forest industry will beassessed: FORIG, FRNR, FFRT and WITC.
3.Rights to ForestResources
(a) Types of Rights
Existing rights governing the use of forest resourcesin Ghana will be assessed.
These include TimberUtilization Contract (TUC),
Timber UtilizationPermit (TUP) and
Salvage Permits for timberresources and Permits for non-timber forest products.
Differences between the rights will also be assessed.
(b) Acquisition ofRightsProcedure for acquiring TUC, TUP and other permitsis required.
(c) Violation of RightsActivities that violate rights (illegal activities) suchas illegal felling, poaching of wildlife, encroachment(illegal farming, illegal mining) is required.
4. Role of StakeholdersStakeholders of forest resources and the rolesthey play in sustaining the forest is required.
Stakeholders include:
(i) Government Sector Institutions - ForestryCommission (WD, FSD, TIDD)
(ii) Traditional Authorities and Communities.
(iii) Non-Governmental Organisations
(iv) Forest-based industries.
Understanding of the terms;
and ability todistinguish between alienation rights and alsorequired.
5. Land Tenure Systems
(a) Types of LandTenure Systems
The major land tenure systems in Ghana: Communal,individual, leasehold etc; and the advantages anddisadvantages of the systems will be assessed.
(b) Role of Stools,Skinsand Central Governmentin LandOwnershipRole of stools and skins and central government inland ownership will be assessed.
(c) Land RegistrationThe importance and the procedure for landregistration will be assessed.
(d) Impact of LandTenure on Landuse.Effects of land tenure on land use systems e.g.fragmentation, litigation etc. and ways toimprove the land tenure system in Ghana arerequired.
6. Forest Policy and LawForest and Wildlife policy and its importance e.g.
Management of forest estate, production of forestindustries, manpower training and research,stakeholders interest will be assessed.
Forest and Wildlife laws and their importance arealso required.

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SECTION F

INCOME GENERATIONVENTURES

(1) Cultivation ofMushroom
(a) Importance anduses of mushroom
Importance of mushroom i.e. economic, nutritional,medicinal and agricultural uses of by-products willbe assessed.
(b) Biology ofmushroom
(i) Classification offungi
Classes of fungi and their characteristics with specialemphasis on Basidiomycetes will be assessed.
(ii) Poisonous andNon-poisonousmushroom/Commercial andNoncommercialMushroomFeatures of poisonous and non-poisonousmushrooms; commercial and non-commercialmushroom will be assessed.
(iii) Commonlycultivatedmushroom inWest AfricaNames of; and ability to identify mushrooms that arecommonly-cultivated in West Africa are required.
(iv) Nutrition ofmushroomHow mushroom obtains its nutrients or subsists onsubstrates/media will be assessed.
(v) Life cycle ofmushroomThe life cycle of mushroom showing thereproduction and production cycles in mushroom isrequired.
(vi) Methods ofmushroomcultivationThe different methods used for cultivatingmushroom indicating in particular the stages/stepsthat are followed in each of the following methods:
- local/pit method
- high bed method
- low bed method
- indoor/commercial/plastic bag methodwill be assessed.
(vii) ProductionpracticesPractices involved in the production of mushroom,especially by the bag method namely;
- composting the substrate
- bagging the substrate
- sterilizing the bagged compost
- inocu lation
- cropping is required.
(viii) Harvesting ofmushroomAbility to detect signs of maturity, techniques andprecautions used when harvesting, frequency ofharvest and yield of the different types of mushroom,will be assessed.
(ix) Post-harvesthandlingSkills in the processing and packaging of mushroomand methods of preservation such as roasting,freezing and canning are required.
2. Beekeeping
(a) Importance ofbeekeeping
Importance of beekeeping will be assessed.
(b) ApiaryestablishmentSkills in the establishment of an apiary i.e. sitingbeehives, baiting and capturing will be assessed.
(c) Members of honeybee colony andtheir rolesCharacteristics and roles of the members of honeybee colony namely; queens, drones and workers isrequired.
(c) Management of anapiary-routinepractices andprecautionsRoutine management practices and precautions toavoid harm to farmers will be assessed.Ability to control pests and diseases of honey beeswill also be assessed.

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(d) Maturity of colony,harvesting andprocessing.Detection signs of maturity, methods of harvestingand processing of honey, wax and other productswill be assessed
(e) Marketing ofhoney and otherproductsStrategies for marketing honey and other products isrequired.
SECTION G

PRACTICALSYLLABUS

1.Inroduction to Wildlifeand Plant Identification.Methods and skills in identification and classificationof plants and animals i.e.
Wildlife:
Fauna
Using observation skills to recognize wildlifethrough footprints, tracks, droppings, size, form,external features and prominent organs.

Plants:
Using observation skills to recognize plant parts:
stem form, crown shape, size, texture andarrangement of vegetative parts, colour of flower,fruit, etc.
Application of conventional keys.
Knowledge of habitats of wildlife is required.
Theanatomy of leaves, stems and roots is also required.
2. Tools, Equipment andMachineryAbility to identify, use and maintain tools, equipmentand machinery used in forestry and wildlifemanagement is required.
Advantages and disadvantages of using the tools arerequired.
3. Nursery practicesSoil treatment methods, seed collection and storage,seed testing and treatment;
methods of sowing andplanting;
and practices such as pricking-out,hardening-off and transplanting;
Nursery pests anddiseases and their control are required.
Ability to design a calendar for tree nurserydevelopment is also required.
4. PlantationEstablishment:
Land preparation
Plantation design and planning, surveying and siteclearing, pegging, methods of planting and culturalpractices such as Thinning, Pruning, Weeding,Beating up and Record Keeping are required.
5. Forest MensurationMethods and ability to determine height, diameter,girth and volume of trees and NTFPs, and angles ofslopes are required.
Knowledge of units of measurement, and use ofconventional symbols are also required.
6. Harvesting of ForestResources
(1) Methods ofHarvestingTimber
Felling operations and safety measures, procedure forharvesting will be assessed.
Log markings:
property mark, locality marks,compartment number, stock survey number, treenumber, reserve code, log number etc. is required.
(2) Methods ofHarvestingNon-timber ForestProducts (PlantsandAnimals)Existing harvesting practices; hunting wildlife(bushmeat), collection (snails, mushroom) Gathering(leaves, food, medicine) Trapping (wildlife);
andharmful harvesting practices are required.
7. Processing of ForestResources
(1) Timber
Ability to identify types of processed forest productse.g.
samples of veneer, plywood, particle board,artefacts (wood carvings) etc.
is required.
Knowledge and understanding of methods ofprocessing timber into the aforementionedproducts are also required.
(2) Non-TimberForestProductsAbility to identify products such as rattan,bamboo, mushrooms, snails, bush meat,medicinal plants etc.
and knowledge of theirprocessing and preservation methods and theiruses will be assessed.
8. Income GeneratingVentures
(1) MushroomCultivation
Ability to identify kinds of mushroom, andknowledge of the uses, methods of cultivation,production, harvesting, processing andpreservation practices are required.
(2) BeekeepingAbility to identify various members of beecolony and knowledge of their roles and uses ofproducts are required.
Knowledge and understanding of management,harvesting, processing and marketing activitiesare also required.

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AseiClass Team

Facts about Teachers

● ● ● Teachers Are Great No Controversy.

● ● ● Teachers are like candles, they burn themselves to light others.

● ● ● Teachers don't teach for the money.

● ● ● Every great mind was once taught by some brilliant teachers.

● ● ● Teachers are the second parents we have.

● ● ● If you can write your name, thank your teacher.

Teaching slogans

● ● ● Until the learner learns the teacher has not taught.

● ● ● I hear and forget, I see and remember, I do and know.

● ● ● The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.

We provide educational resources/materials, curriculum guide, syllabus, scheme of work, lesson note & plan, waec, jamb, O-level & advance level GCE lessons/tutorial classes, on various topics, subjects, career, disciplines & department etc. for all the Class of Learners